Chapter 14  Discrete Math, Algorithms, Data Structures, and Not Sucking at Programming ™* #
Brute Force Algorithms #
Backtracking #
[TODO] Directed Acyclic Graphs
[TODO] Finite State Machines
[TODO] egraphs? https://egraphsgood.github.io
[TODO] http://courses.csail.mit.edu/6.851/
[TODO] ‘Tree Traversal’ on Algorithm Archive
Divide and Conquer #
Master Theorm #
Decrease and Conquer #
Branch and Bound #
Kernelization #
Cacheing #
*With some complexity analysis too.
[TODO]
https://www.mattkeeter.com/blog/20210301happen/
[TODO] I also have discreete math in the chapter 11, math… not sure what do do about this…
Truth tables, binary, logical equlivencies, propositional logic,
Sets, functions, relations, recurrence, induction, combonation, graphs, isomorphsm,
Benchmarking #
Many computer science courses will have a basically a full class on Algorithm Analysis, usually more specifically looking into BigO analysis. In a nut shell, this involves determing how much computation has to occur for a given input size. For example, if you have 10 inputs and just want to add them together, you can do that in O(n) time, because for n inputs you only need to do n
computations (well, actually n1 here, but we ignore the constant), but if you wanted to sort them with Quicksort (Wikipedia) that could take up to
\(O(n^2)\)
basically, the time to run the code (in the worst case) may be squared with the number of inputs. This is not great. If we assume each operation take 1 secon (a bit unreasonably long, but go with it) that means for 10 input we’re looking at a bit over a minute and a half, but for 1000 inputs that’s up to 11.57 days.
So, you should learn how to do this kind of analysis right? Well, it’s not a bad idea to  and I do have a brief overview of it in the following section  it’s really not as important as those classes make it seem. This is for a few reasons. The first is that the code you write and the code that actually runs are usually quite different. As a basic example, let’s look at this C code:


Super basic, just sums the numbers 0 to ``max`. So, let’s compile that and look at the assembly code:
dumb(int):
addi sp,sp,48
sd s0,40(sp)
addi s0,sp,48
mv a5,a0
sw a5,36(s0)
sw zero,20(s0)
sw zero,24(s0)
.L3:
lw a4,24(s0)
lw a5,36(s0)
sext.w a4,a4
sext.w a5,a5
bge a4,a5,.L2
lw a4,20(s0)
lw a5,24(s0)
addw a5,a4,a5
sw a5,20(s0)
lw a5,24(s0)
addiw a5,a5,1
sw a5,24(s0)
j .L3
.L2:
lw a5,20(s0)
mv a0,a5
ld s0,40(sp)
addi sp,sp,48
jr ra
Okay, so, yeah, that’s about what we expect. There’s a few jumps so the loop can execute, whatever. Thing is, if you’re ever actually releasing code, you’ll have complier optimization on. With optimization, the compiler will happily generate more efficient code for you. Because we didn’t do anything conditionally here sum will always, no matter what, return that same number. The compiler can figure this out, and with optimization on, it spits out this assembly:
dumb(int):
mv a4,a0
ble a0,zero,.L4
li a5,0
li a0,0
.L3:
addw a0,a0,a5
addiw a5,a5,1
bne a4,a5,.L3
ret
.L4:
li a0,0
ret
And, allright, yeah, that’s less lines, dramitically more effient, but it’s still seems to be doing the same loop. So, let’s do one more thing, let’s add a main function that calls this code and add the inline
keyword to our dumb function so that the compiler knows it doesn’t actually need to generate the function call, it can wrap it into the main function’s code itself:


That gives us this assembly:
.LC0:
.string "%d"
main:
addi sp,sp,32
lui a0,%hi(.LC0)
li a5,4096
addi a1,sp,12
addi a5,a5,854
addi a0,a0,%lo(.LC0)
sd ra,24(sp)
sw a5,12(sp)
call printf
ld ra,24(sp)
li a0,0
addi sp,sp,32
jr ra
Which, you sholud notice never runs our loop. Instead, the result of the math (summing 0 to 99, which is 4950) is stored directly into the code (well, sorta, it’s 4096 + 854, because of limits on immediate values in asembly, but don’t worry about that)  my point is that our originally O(n) code isn’t even O(n) anymore because, well, it never even runs. The compiler went “Oh, I can just precompute that result and save it in the program” and that’s what it did.
Now, the take away here should not be that the compiler is magic and means you don’t need to write fast algorithms. That said, the complier totally is magic. Compiler optimizaiton will regularly outperform anything you could write by hand. Instead my point is that doing that analysis may not mean that much if the complier is doing magic underneath it anyway. So, while you should be able to at a glance see that some code is just horrifically inefficent (deeply nested loops, brute force approaches, etc.) the name of the game is benchmarking. If performance matters or you just noticed things suddenly taking a lot longer, run a benchmark! If you’re about to try to performance optimze code, seriously run a benchmark first  you may find your clever tricks actually made things slower! Log the amount of time things take. We have the tools!
Benchmarking/Profiling Tools #
Some benchmarking tools are language dependent, some aren’t. Generally, those that are will get you deeper insights but be more annoying to run. Also, keep in mind some tools actually add some time to run because of measuring the performance (Heisenberg style). Regardless, a pile of links to look though:
 Python Flame Graphs
 C and C++ Flame Graphs
 Chrome and Firefox both have Flame graph tools built in
 Using Hyperfine (Github) to measure run times is amazing
Of course, you can always just print()
the time before and after the event that you think might be eating cycles too.
It’s also a good idea to test on multiple platforms, both in terms of hardware and operating system (assuming you’re targeting more than one OS) as some functions tend to have wildly varrying performance  particularly system level functions (print()
, I/O) and math functions like sin()
 there’s a lot of ways to compute trig functions, not all of them are fast.
Complexity analysis #
Big O Notation  explained as easily as possible (that computer scientist) (Archive.org link)
More cool videos like this can be found at https://www.youtube.com/c/Musicombo/videos
+recursion analysis, P vs. NP (YouTube)
Brute Force #
Divide and Conquer #
Data structures #
trees, hashtables/maps, stacks
Practice #
Fib, some practice logical equliv, base conversion algo, overlapping lines, matrix multiplication
Locality #
Temporal #
Spatial #
Dynamic Programming #
Heads up, this is a 5 hour video: